Table of Contents :


A knight was a professional soldier. He rode out to do battle . Knights attacked enemies and defended their castles .

In order to become a knight, a young man had to go through three stages : When he was 7, he became a page . He helped a knight get dressed and put on his armour . He also trained with his master and they played a lot of games. The knight also showed the page how to use a sword . The ladies of a castle taught a page how to sit at the table and table manners .

At 14 the page became a squire . He was a knight's personal servant . In a battle he would bring the knight his lances and swords if they were broken. Squires also wore heavy armour and they trained for battles. They learned to ride horses and carried shields and swords.

At 21 a squire could become a knight. In a ceremony , he put on a white tunic and knelt before his lord. His lord would make him a knight with a slap of his hand or the flat part of his sword. Then the knight got his weapons.



Tournaments started in France in the 11th century. They were usually held to entertain the king , his family and the noblemen. They took place in fields that had walls around them and where many people could watch.

The joust was a typical medieval sport. Two knights on horseback rode towards each other. The knights wore armour and held a sharp lance . The horses wore armour too. Each knight wanted to knock his enemy off his horse. Very often, knights were killed and other people were killed too when horses went out of control. Sometimes both knights were knocked off their horses. Then they continued fighting on the ground. When a knight won, the daughter or wife of the king would throw him a scarf or a glove to show that he was something special and that they liked him.

Tournaments were the highlights of life in a castle. People made wooden stands and sold things. They ended in the 17th century , when guns became popular .





Many kinds of weapons were used in the Middle Ages.

Knights liked to use their swords . Sometimes they were very big so the knights had to use both their hands. Knights on horses often used lances . They were very long and pointed. Some of them were made of wood and some of metal.

Vikings made their own deadly weapons - like the battle axe , which they used against their enemies.

The dagger was one of the smallest weapons of the Middle Ages. Knights didn't use it until the 14th century

Archers used bows and arrows . Crossbows were introduced in the 11th century. They were made mostly of wood and were used to shoot arrows over long distances .




Online Exercises



  •   archer = a person who shoots arrows
  •   armour = metal or leather clothes that protect your body. Soldiers and knights wore them
  •   arrow =weapon made out of a thin piece of wood with a sharp point at one end ; you shoot it with a bow
  •   attack = to start using guns and bombs against an enemy
  •   battle = a part of a bigger war
  •   battle axe = a weapon with a heavy metal blade and a handle on it
  •   bow = a weapon that is curved, used for shooting arrows
  •   century = a hundred years
  •   ceremony = a very important event
  •   continue = to go on
  •   crossbow = a weapon like a bow that has a piece of wood or metal on it
  •   dagger = a short pointed knife used as a weapon
  •   defend = protect
  •   distance =how far two objects are from each other
  •   enemy = someone who hates you and who wants to fight against you
  •   entertain = to make someone happy by showing them nice things
  •   flat =even, level
  •   glove = a piece of leather or cloth that you wear around your hand when it is cold
  •   highlight = the most important and interesting part of an event
  •   introduce = to appear for the first time
  •   joust = to fight with lances on horseback
  •   kneal—knelt = to go down on your knees
  •   knock off = to hit so that a person falls down
  •   lance = a long thin weapon that knights used when they rode horses
  •   manner = the way you behave
  •   master = the person you serve and do things for
  •   medieval = everything that has to do with the Middle Ages
  •   page = boy who serves a knight
  •   popular = liked by many people
  •   professional = to do something for money
  •   scarf = a piece of cloth that you wear around your neck
  •   servant = someone who does things for others
  •   shield = a large piece of metal that knights used to protect themselves
  •   slap = to hit someone with your hand
  •   squire = a young man who learns how to be a knight
  •   stage = phase, part
  •   stand = a small table where you sell things
  •   sword = a weapon with a long pointed blade
  •   tunic = like a “cape”
  •   usually = normally, often
  •   weapon = something that you use to fight with or attack someone , like a gun